|Water Standard’s H2Ocean Spectrum® solution employs innovative water treatment technologies to maximize oil recovery. H2Ocean Spectrum® is comprised of a suite of treatment options that can be tailored to meet the needs of any waterflood project. The treatment options include various plug-and-play technologies to accomplish:
The H2Ocean Spectrum® solution offers cost and performance advantages that benefit all types of waterfloods, from a conventional water injection requiring only filtration and deaeration, to sophisticated chemical and low salinity floods requiring desalination or hardness removal. Systems are available to treat a wide range of capacities (from 300-72,000 m3/day, or 2,000-450,000 bpd) and feature a patent-pending smart control system for provision of water quality of any desired water composition. If needed, the H2Ocean Spectrum® system can be equipped with capability to switch between different operating modes: SRP, low salinity flooding, and/or chemical EOR flooding.
The next generation of H2Ocean Spectrum® technology is now available in Water Standard’s C-H2Ocean Spectrum® product line. C-H2Ocean Spectrum® offers a more compact system—smaller in footprint and lighter in weight while achieving stringent water quality control. Water Standard aims to assist Operators increase oil production by replacement of conventional waterflood packages with C-H2Ocean Spectrum®, slotting enhanced oil recovery (EOR) capability into the same footprint and weight of a conventional waterflood unit.
Water Standard takes pride in understanding the unique needs of each oil reservoir and works with the Operator to optimize injectivity and profitability of the field by customizing the H2Ocean Spectrum® components to best fit the project. Water Standard’s offshore and onshore solutions are also unique in that they are able to use a wide range of feedwater sources and produce a consistent injection water quality, regardless of seasonal and local variations.
Filtration is critical in every waterflood and filter performance and availability have long-term impacts on the achievable oil recovery. Water Standard’s due diligence to choice of filter type, degree of filtration, and design of the filtration process can play a key role in the long-term success of a waterflood operation.
Filtration removes suspended solids (particulates) from water, as well as a portion of colloidal, biological and dispersed organic matter, depending on the type of filtration used. The amount of filterable solids in a water source can be roughly estimated from an analysis of total suspended solids (TSS). It is important to note that filtration does not remove dissolved solids such as salinity or hardness.
The degree of filtration is a function of downstream equipment requirements, or in a conventional waterflood, it is dictated by the injectivity needs of the reservoir. For instance, downstream processes such as nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) or membrane deaeration (MDA), each have specific filtration requirements (RO and NF require SDI<4; MDA requires 5 µm cartridge filtration or better).
The degree of filtration for conventional waterfloods should be optimized around field economics and injectivity needs. This can be estimated using empirical methods and known reservoir permeability, or preferably, through injectivity testing of the water source. Permeability Reduction Testing provides valuable core injectivity information about a water source, while Millipore Filtration Testing simulates injectivity performance by monitoring filtration through a 0.45 µm filter pad.
Water Standard provides the following filtration options:
Water Standard provides coarse filtration as a function of downstream equipment needs and source water quality. In Membrane Filtration (MF) applications, coarse filters should provide relatively tight straining, typically in the range of 100-500 µm to prevent shards or other sharp material in the source water from reaching the membrane filters, thereby impacting membrane integrity. The degree of coarse filtration is often a provision in the MF element warranty and the maximum allowable rating is usually provided by the MF manufacturer. Water Standard engineers are industry leaders in research and application of coarse filtration for seawater MF protection.
The level of coarse filtration upstream of media or cartridge filtration generally varies from 300-2000 µm, and in some cases screening at the feedwater pump may be sufficient, depending on water quality.
Membrane Filtration (Fine Filtration)
WSMF – 48 Standard
Membrane Filtration Rack
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Water Standard’s MF systems are available in two absolute filtration ranges: ultrafiltration and microfiltration. Recognizing that injectivity requirements vary significantly between reservoirs, MF provides an absolute barrier to particles/suspended solids and therefore water injectivity will be excellent compared to media or cartridge filtration. That is, MF filtrate contains virtually no suspended solids, which eliminates external or internal cake formation and solids perforation or matrix plugging. MF can also reduce reservoir biofouling as a function of colloidal and microbial reduction.
Compared to media filters, Water Standard’s MF systems reduce weight and footprint by 10-50% due to its compact and lightweight components, depending on flow and availability specification. Membrane filtration also reduces downstream equipment needs in a SRP or low salinity flooding application by eliminating cartridge filtration. Due to the absolute barriers aspect of MF, cartridge filters are not necessary, thereby eliminating a biofouling weak spot as well as reducing weight, footprint, and costs. Furthermore, MF requires less chemical when compared to media and cartridge filtration as a result of removing coagulant addition for filtration.
Because membrane filtration is a pressurized process, along with membrane deaeration it allows removal of the injector booster pumps in a process, providing additional weight, space, and cost savings.
Water Standard is diligently working to reduce the footprint and weight burdens of conventional pretreatment systems by offering MF systems in multiple designs. Horizontal and vertical systems allow footprint flexibility for various configurations needed to integrate the technology into both greenfield and brownfield applications.
Cartridge Filtration (Fine Filtration)
Cartridge Filter Housing
Cartridge filtration performance varies significantly between manufacturers. Water Standard’s cartridge filter products are customized based on the Client’s specific project economic and performance demands. Nominal filters are commonly used in the O&G industry, resulting in passage of particles larger than the claimed removal rating. Nominal cartridge filter ratings are based on weight percent removal, not industry standard test methods. Absolute filter ratings, however, are tested according to industry standards and can be relied upon to achieve the specific removal needs.
The configuration and construction of cartridge filter support cages are also important considerations that can impact OPEX long-term. Water Standard works with world class suppliers for cartridge filter supply and design to ensure long service life, highest and consistent removal performance resulting in lower overall OPEX to the Operator.
Cartridge Filter Skid Package With Housing Cutaway
|Water Standard uses Reverse Osmosis (RO) and/or Nanofiltration (NF) technology to achieve desalination, softening and sulphate removal. Water Standard has pilot-tested a range of RO and NF products to be able to recommend the best membrane product to meet an Operator’s specific water quality needs.Depending on the type of waterflood, injection water quality can be a key project requirement. Even in conventional waterflooding, it is often necessary to remove sulphate to prevent downhole precipitation and potential souring. In low salinity waterflooding, the feedwater is desalinated using RO and NF, as a function of the water chemistry dictated by the reservoir geology and oil characteristics. In the case of a chemical EOR flood, the injected water quality varies from exceedingly low levels of hardness and salinity to various hardness levels and high salinity.Reverse Osmosis
Reverse osmosis technology has been used since the 1970’s for removal of dissolved solids (salts) from water. A typical RO systems consist of feed pumps and RO membrane units, and in some cases energy recovery. The feed pumps and energy recovery work to provide the necessary pressure to push water through the membranes.Water Standard utilizes state-of-the-art RO technology and selects the specific RO membrane type and model as a function of individual project needs. As a component of the C-H2Ocean Spectrum™ technology, Water Standard has recently completed pilot testing of high flow RO membranes which operate at flux rates of 50-80% greater than conventional RO technology, thereby reducing the footprint and weight of an offshore RO system accordingly. To learn more about Water Standard’s High Flow RO testing, read:
Similar to RO, nanofiltration is a membrane process in which water is forced through a semipermeable membrane under pressure. The membrane restricts passage of dissolved substances such as calcium, sulphate, magnesium, etc. Unlike RO membranes, NF membranes are specially designed to reject divalent ions (calcium, magnesium, sulphate) more effectively than monovalent ions (sodium, potassium, chloride). This allows salinity to pass through the membrane into the permeate, while softening the water and removing sulphate.
NF technology is used for waterflooding in SRP applications to remove sulphate, and more recently in low salinity and chemical EOR applications in which some salinity is needed in the injection water, coupled with low hardness (note some floods may benefit from higher hardness levels to address clay swelling).
Water Standard has pioneered new NF technologies for the waterflood market, allowing fine-tuning of injection water quality to provide an extraordinary range of salinity, hardness and sulphate levels. To learn more, read:
Membrane Deaeration (MDA™) – Deoxygenation
|Oxygen removal from injection water protects downstream facilities and reservoir integrity by preventing corrosion and bacterial growth. Compared to conventional deaeration technologies, Water Standard’s compact membrane deaeration design offers:
To learn more about membrane deaeration, refer to SPE 174935, Offshore Membrane Deaeration as a Replacement for Vacuum Tower Deaeration – A Comparative Study, by Steve Van Pelt and Holly Churman, Water Standard.
As a qualified Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for 3M Liqui-Cel® membrane contactors, Water Standard delivers turn-key membrane deaeration solutions and operations support to the oil and gas industry.
3M’s Liqui-Cel® technology is commercially proven in industrial operations. It uses hollow fiber membranes to remove gases from liquids. The liquid is passed over the outside (shell) of the hydrophobic membrane, while the gas is stripped from the liquid using sweep gas on the inside of the fiber (lumen).
Water Standard’s designs allow for uninterrupted operation during cleanings and oxygen removal to
The standard scope of supply includes:
Standard options include:
Water Standard’s latest MDA™ design, the MDA Torrnado™ optimizes the equipment package even further by offering additional operational and economic benefits.
The MDA Torrnado™ design eliminates the need for vacuum pumps from the process. This creates a compact design with no rotating parts.
Energy for vacuum is provided via a pressurized motive fluid supply which can be a gas or liquid. In many cases, the motive fluid can be a process waste stream from elsewhere in the facility. These process waste streams could include excess facility seawater supply, desalination reject water, cooling water return, power generator effluent, and excess facility compressed air or nitrogen.
|Water Standard’s produced water and wastewater segment, Monarch Separators designs, engineers and manufactures various essential separation technologies for removal of oil and solids from water produced globally by the energy industry.
Water Standard’s crude desalter wash water system provides a compact and cost-effective method to meet the growing demand for water for crude washing and crude desalting. The treatment system can be fit into a tight refinery footprint to expand existing wash water production, or can be designed and built for a range of greenfield capacities.
Most desalter wash water is sourced from the refinery’s sour water stripper, which historically, has been sufficient to meet the needs of the desalter operation. Today, however, refineries wish to process additional and/or heavier crude through their existing desalters, requiring additional wash water.
Water Standard’s crude desalting solution encompasses wash water treatment, on-demand make-up water supply, and crude washing (if needed). Depending on the available sour water capacity, the required wash water capacity and the level of salt removal needed, Water Standard designs and supplies a customized system to address the specific project needs. The wash water make-up system includes water filtration, desalination (if needed), and deaeration in a configuration that provides versatility, maximum uptime and easy expansion. The wash water system supplies fresh deaerated wash water to the crude desalter unit, which applies electrostatic treatment and de-emulsification to reduce the total dissolved solids in the crude stream.
Water Standard’s compact wash water unit can be procured independent of the crude desalter unit and is available in a plug-and-play configuration for quick commissioning and/or expansion. Water Standard also provides complimentary consulting and troubleshooting services to conduct economic assessments and technical feasibility to assist Clients evaluate their treatment options.
Water Standard provides utility water systems to meet a wide range of needs and capacities using modular plug-and-play configuration that minimizes downtime, enables easy expansion and maintains optimum uptime. Our compact units also minimize space requirements while providing treatment of surface water, groundwater, and/or wastewater for recycling/reuse within a facility. Water Standard’s utility water solutions provide cost-effective water supply with low chemical consumption and are customized to meet the specific project water demands and include filtration, desalination, deionization, softening and/or degassing/deaeration.