Water Standard’s toolbox of upstream water treatment solutions encompasses a range of processes to increase oil recovery and minimize cost, weight and footprint. Through its H2Ocean Spectrum® product line, Water Standard offers the advantage of compact and robust technologies―proven to meet the energy industry’s rigorous upstream requirements while saving on the bottom line.
In upstream O&G applications, water is ubiquitous: both a resource to maintain reservoir pressure or enhance recovery, and a challenge to separate from the oil and treat accordingly. Today, more than 50% of all oil produced utilizes waterflooding, resulting in approximately 500 million barrels per day of produced water requiring treatment. Adding further complexity, weight and footprint are unique and overarching constraints in upstream oil and gas, while safety is paramount to all operations. Water Standard is proud to provide technologies to enable the Industry to value water as a critical resource, to recycle where possible, and to minimize its water footprint, thereby empowering the Industry’s leadership as one of the planet’s primary environmental custodians.
UPSTREAM ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE SOLUTIONS
Ensures injectivity and maintains reservoir pressure
|Over 50% of the world’s oil recovery operations use waterflooding.
In conventional waterflooding, understanding reservoir characteristics and the level of treatment to achieve injectivity goals ensures maximum oil production at the lowest cost. Delivering to that specified treatment level throughout the facility life avoids or reduces corrosion, scaling, biofouling, plugging, fracturing, souring and associated workovers. Water treatment must remove solids and particulates (filtration), biological activity, colloids and oxygen (deaeration) from the injection water to prevent impacts to the production wells, lines and reservoir.
Water Standard applies best available technology solutions for filtration as a function of injection quality needs and encourages use of membrane filters (MF) due to injectivity performance and compact footprint. Membrane deaeration (MDA™) is recommended for oxygen removal to achieve SBS-free deaeration within a small weight and footprint.
|The Water Standard H2Ocean Spectrum® compact waterflood solution:
Sulphate Removal (SRP)
Eliminates sulphate to prevent souring and scaling
|Over 70 Sulphate Removal Packages have been installed offshore worldwide.
Building on Water Standard’s conventional waterflood systems, the Sulphate Removal Package (SRP) adds a subsequent treatment step downstream of filtration and prior to deaeration and injection. Seawater contains 2,600-3,600 ppm sulphate. If injected, the sulphate can form scale deposits with reservoir constituents such as barium and strontium. Sulphate also plays a primary role in reservoir souring, acting as a nutrient for sulphate-reducing bacteria. Treating seawater to remove sulphate prior to injection prevents these challenges.Water Standard recommends membrane pre-filtration (MF) upstream of SRP nanofiltration (NF) to maximize NF membrane life, and to minimize NF cleaning costs and footprint.
|The Water Standard H2Ocean Spectrum® compact SRP solution:
Increases available oil by injecting low salinity water (no chemicals)
|Pilot data for low-salinity water injection shows recovery can be increased by 2 to 40% of (OOIP).
Low salinity injection changes the wettability characteristics of the reservoir rock, shifting the properties of a reservoir to a state of water wetness, increasing microscopic sweep efficiency and consequently, increasing oil recovery. Low salinity flooding also provides sulphate-free water, thereby reducing souring potential and preventing scaling as it increases oil recovery.To provide low salinity water from seawater or alternative water sources, additional facilities are needed which pose challenges offshore due to space and weight limitations. Water Standard recommends compact membrane technologies for filtration, desalination and deaeration in order to compress overall footprint and weight demands and ensure high injectivity and low maintenance through the facility life. Water Standard’s technology also offers the benefit of switching injection water quality over the field life, as needed, to cater to different EOR methods.
|The Water Standard H2Ocean Spectrum® compact low salinity flood solution:
Enhanced Water Alternating Gas (eWAG) Recovery with Low Salinity
Combines the benefits of an alternating water/miscible gas WAG with the recovery potential of low salinity
|Low salinity eWAG can increase OOIP recovery by 9% compared to a high salinity WAG.
Water alternating gas (WAG) injection uses alternating slugs of water and gas (usually miscible CO2) to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency of a flood assuming water sweeps the lower region while gas sweeps the upper region of a reservoir. Typical WAG’s recovery an incremental 5-10% of OOIP. Enhanced WAG’s (eWAGs) can use foam, chemicals or low salinity water to further improve recovery. A WAG requires access to a gas such as miscible CO2 in addition to a water source of injectible quality, thereby adding costs and complexity to a project.Water Standard recommends use of its compact low salinity flood system to minimize space and weight demands and maximize uptime. If the eWAG is anticipated to be relatively short in duration, a Water Standard equipment lease is available.
|The Water Standard H2Ocean Spectrum® compact eWAG solution:
Using the properties of polymer, surfactant and/or alkali to boost oil recovery
|Polymer flooding increases OOIP recovery 5-10% while ASP floods have the potential for 20-30% additional OOIP recovery.
Polymer addition increases the injectant viscosity and improves sweep efficiency, while alkali and surfactants mobilize oil by reducing the interfacial tension betweent the oil and water during the flood. Salinity of the water directly correlates to the cost and effectiveness of polymer floods used in chemical EOR programs. For floods using alkali, the injection water must be softened and/or desalinated to remove hardness ions to prevent precipitation with the alkali. In surfactant flooding, an optimum salinity is needed to maximize the surfactant effectiveness. Water Standard’s H2Ocean Spectrum® customizes the water quality (salinity, hardness and sulphate levels) to maximize the efficiency of the chemicals, optimize overall costs and influence oil/water separation after production.
|The Water Standard H2Ocean Spectrum® compact chemical EOR flood solution:
Meeting environmental discharge standards
|Over 500 million bbl/day of water is produced as a function of global oil production, equating to approximately 5 bbl of water per bbl of oil.
Produced water must be separated from oil and treated to meet local discharge regulations prior to disposal. In general, regulations are increasingly stringent, requiring more rigorous treatment and in some areas, zero discharge has been mandated. Produced water discharge regulations fluctuate by location, which, coupled with unpredictable changes and site variations in produced water quality, makes produced water treatment vary in complexity and effectiveness.To address the wide range of needs, Water Standard maintains a large toolbox of robust and cost-effective produced water treatment technologies to provide primary, secondary and/or tertiary treatment. Water Standard also specializes in solving complex produced water challenges, such as those associated with chemical EOR.Water Standard’s produced water and wastewater segment, Monarch Separators designs, engineers and manufactures various essential separation technologies for removal of oil and solids from water produced globally by the energy industry.
|The Water Standard compact produced water treatment solution for discharge disposal:
Produced Water Treatment for Reinjection (PWRI)
Get the most value from your produced water and resolve discharge challenges
|Approximately 1/3 of the world’s produced water is reinjected.
With increasing environmental regulations, produced water reinjection (PWRI) can deliver both a solution and a value proposition. The solution hinges on eliminating produced water discharges and the value arises when treatment disarms the produced water of its problem constituents and enables its use for pressure maintenance. Treatment regimens for offshore PWRI are limited by space and weight constraints, which often dictate the achievable treated quality in terms of residual hydrocarbons, hardness and salts, solids and particulates and production chemicals. These contaminants impact injectivity and depending on the formation characteristics and injection dynamics, they can contribute to injection decline and formation damage.Water Standard’s produced water treatment toolbox offers the most robust and compact treatment systems available in the market. Combined with our chemical and formation compatibility analytics and operations experience, we offer PWRI feasibility analysis and subsequent systems to meet the most discriminating needs of the industry.Water Standard’s produced water and wastewater segment, Monarch Separators designs, engineers and manufactures various essential separation technologies for removal of oil and solids from water produced globally by the energy industry.
|The Water Standard compact produced water treatment solution for reinjection:
|High- and ultra-pure water enable utility processes in the upstream oil and gas industry and provide potable water supply.
High purity and ultrapure water are needed in the majority of offshore facilities to provide for maintenance needs and/or to address utility and potable supply demands, using seawater as the primary source. Onshore, the source water may vary but the fundamental treatment needs are similar, depending on the use of the treated water: remove solids and particulates, colloids, biological activity, salts including hardness, dissolved gases including oxygen and carbon dioxide.Water Standard’s high- and ultrapure water treatment systems provide the most compact and lightweight technologies available, utilizing super flux technology (where needed) to achieve lowest possible space, compact, continuous Electrodeionization (CEDI) and membrane deaeration.
|The Water Standard compact high purity and ultrapure water treatment solution:
Wash Water for Desalter
|Crude oil salinity varies from 5,000 to 250,000 ppm as a function of salt dissolved in small droplets of water dispersed through the oil.
Crude sourced from briny reservoirs requires desalting treatment to prevent scale formation and corrosion in pipelines and equipment. In these cases, fresh wash water in combination with an electrostatic treater and de-emulsifier provide the needed crude desalting. A wash water treatment unit ensures continuous desalting capability to augment wash water supply from the sour water stripper.Water Standard’s crude desalting unit provides cost-effective treatment within a compact footprint that can easily expand in capacity as facility needs increase over the field life.
|The Water Standard compact crude desalting and wash water treatment solution: